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Top tips for #FreshersWeek #freshers2017 #Uni #StudentLife from an academic midwife

Tis that time of year again when students from all over the world descend upon university campuses to embark upon a fun filled journey of learning, adventure and growth.

Having been in education now for a number of years, I think this must be close to my tenth freshers week! Every year I get the same buzzy feeling of excitement as the freshers week commences…

(Unless that is the same feeling of excitement you get when Santa is coming…oh come on…Autumn…I am already thinking about the festive season!)

The streets are full of vibrant things to do and get involved in…people are making friends and connections and everyone is ready to take on a new challenge in life!

The sad thing is…whether I wear my student ID badge, or my staff ID badge..I am seemingly passed by when the invites for the foam parties and other nights out are being dished out…(grump)!…hmm…I wonder why? 🤔🎓 Maybe it will be different this year…and if you do see me on campus…I would love to hear about your plans!

I will be involved in the #CovHLSFreshers Twitter takeover this year..Ooh..snazzy!

 

As well as other survival guides out there, I wanted to share some of my own hints and tips for freshers.

Tip One:

No matter how scared or excited you are during freshers week….I think there are a few quotes that you should memorize and repeat to yourself in times of need….

Image result for a little nonsense now and then quote

Image result for everything will be alright in the end

 

Image result for be who you are and say what you feel

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Tip Two:

Remember that there is no need to justify your course choice to anyone but yourself. This is your journey, your life now….trust yourself to make your own life choices. You got this!

Tip Three:

Find your tribe….Not necessarily those who look and talk like you…but those who will hear your voice, sing with you and lift you up. This could be your relevant student society or Twitter community..it could even be those you meet through doing what you love….hold on tight to these people for the ride…and make sure to lift each other up!

Tip Four:

Document your journey and take time to reflect. This experience will be over all too quickly and it’s going to be amazing! reflecting will help you to be mindful about your own situation and recognize your own achievements as your hard work pays off. Be grateful for 1 thing every day…however big or small…and celebrate the achievements of yourself and others every chance you get.

Tip Five:

Look after yourself. Self care can make your university experience a million times better. Take breaks, help yourself before you help others…and as for romance……

Image result for put your own oxygen mask on first quote

See->

10 Tips for Success & Self-Care for Academics

Category Archives: Student Tips 🎓

❤Welcome all!❤

See you on campus!

If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaroThe Academic MidwifeThis blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

 

 

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Five Myths about Internationalization in higher education

Freshers week is almost upon us again this year at Coventry University and I am learning to teach!…So I wanted to reflect on and celebrate the diversity of students coming to study.

 

I have always enjoyed the vibrancy and wealth of knowledge that international students bring to universities…and when you are indulging in a new topic of interest, international students can bring a wealth of new and insightful knowledge to the table…from around the world! But there are a few myths about internationalization that I wanted to reflect on with the help of Jane Knight. These myths apply to all higher academic institutions, and of course there are always exceptions to every rule.

MYTH ONE: FOREIGN STUDENTS AS INTERNATIONALIZATION AGENTS

“A long-standing myth is that more foreign students on campus will produce
more internationalized institutional culture and curriculum. “

In fact, unless there are bespoke programmes targeted towards international students, divisions and factions will often provide a more secular experience on campus. The rationale for internationalizing a university campus is often well intended, but new strategies will be required to turn this vision into practice. To reflect on this, there may be some scope to include international students in blended learning sessions prior to their arrival on campus. Perhaps a buddying system with domestic students may also enhance the learning experience, as international students will also be adapting to a new life outside of the classroom at first.

MYTH TWO: INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION AS A PROXY FOR QUALITY

Internationalization does not always translate into improved quality or high standards. This means that we, as teachers may need to find new ways to evaluate the quality of our outputs with a view to making real world improvements. This means acting on student feedback at a personal level to understand what is happening on the shop floor. Improvements will not appear automatically, but rather than just hoping for the best….PDSA cycles may be of use when making such improvements.

 

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MYTH THREE: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL AGREEMENTS

It is often believed that the greater number of international agreements or
network memberships a university has the more prestigious and attractive it is to
other institutions and students

To maintain active and fruitful relationships, major investments are required in human and financial resources from individual faculty members, departments, and international university offices. This is not always feasible to maintain. Therefore, it will be key to develop a few deep and meaningful international relationships or partnerships rather than create many paper based partnerships which may not always best serve our students, staff and/or institutions.

MYTH FOUR: INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION

The premise is that, the more international accreditation stars
an institution has, the more internationalized it is and ergo the better it is. But a foreign recognition of quality does not necessarily speak to the scope, scale, or value of international activities related to teaching/learning, research. Again, it will only be via the creation of deep and meaningful real-world relationships that meaningful connections can be made between quality and reaping the rewards of international partnerships.

MYTH FIVE: GLOBAL BRANDING

It is a myth that an international marketing scheme is the equivalent of an internationalization plan.

An international marketing campaign is a promotion and branding exercise…an internationalization plan is a strategy to integrate an international, intercultural, and global dimension into the goals and teaching, research, and service functions of a university. In teaching international students, it may be more important to focus on the internationalization plan, as this is what may result in the better student and staff experience within the university. Then again, of course it depends on what university policies and strategies set out to achieve.

Personally, I would like to spend my time in higher education creating small numbers of really meaningful international relationships rather than collaborate with large numbers of international students and institutions. Whilst large numbers may look better on paper, superficial relationships will not translate into value, quality or high standards in academia.

People work better when they are connected through things that matter, and in order to reap the rewards of an international student community, we must all make connections that matter. It is focusing on the few important relationships that will enable us to listen, plan, do and act better in higher education.

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Further reading:

Knight, Jane. “Five myths about internationalization.” International Higher Education 62 (2015).

Beine, Michel, Romain Noël, and Lionel Ragot. “Determinants of the international mobility of students.” Economics of Education review 41 (2014): 40-54.

Soria, Krista M., and Jordan Troisi. “Internationalization at home alternatives to study abroad: Implications for students’ development of global, international, and intercultural competencies.” Journal of Studies in International Education 18.3 (2014): 261-280.

Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna, and Kyung-Sun Kim. “International students’ everyday life information seeking: The informational value of social networking sites.” Library & Information Science Research 35.2 (2013): 107-116.

If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaroThe Academic MidwifeThis blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

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Exploring ‘obstetric violence’ and ‘birth rape’

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Recently, the wonderful Ibone Olza (Perinatal Psychiatrist and Childbirth Activist from Childbirth is Ours, Spain) contacted me about her work on obstetric violence, birth rape and professional trauma. After reading her papers and watching her present her work, I was compelled to document and reflect upon some of the issues raised, here.

The following points are made within the paper: Fernández, Ibone Olza. “PTSD and obstetric violence.” Midwifery today with international midwife 105 (2013): 48-9.

Birth trauma has been defined as “Actual or threatened injury or death to the mother or her baby” (Beck 2008). Yet such trauma lies in the eye of the beholder, therefore, any trauma experienced by either the mother, newborn or the birth attendant may be due to a subjective experience of stress which does not need to fit any particular criteria necessarily. This means that some traumatic events may be subjective in their nature, and as such, we cannot judge what may or may not cause another person trauma. It is a personal interpretation or perception.

A meta-ethnographic analysis of studies about women’s perceptions and experiences of a traumatic birth reported that women are often traumatized as a result of the actions or inactions of midwifery staff (Elmir et al. 2010). Whatever, such inactions or actions may be…women often use words such as ‘barbaric’, ‘intrusive’, ‘horrific’ and ‘degrading’ to describe their mistreatment (Thomson and Downe 2008).

For Hodges, drugging or cutting a pregnant woman with no medical indication is an act of violence, even when performed by a medical professional in a hospital. Inappropriate medical treatment is also clearly abusive, although few women are aware that this is deliberate mistreatment (Hodges 2009).

The term ‘birth rape’ has been used by women who feel that their bodies have been violated. Kitzinger highlighted that many women who have experienced a traumatic birth display similar symptoms to rape survivors (Kitzinger 2006). The video below explores these issues in greater detail, as we can hear the lovely  Ibone Olza  sharing this work.

 

One of the things I was most encouraged about, was that  Ibone Olza  considers the wellbeing of the midwifery staff in her work. Birth attendants are often also traumatized by these acts, and may feel powerless to intervene. In a recent study by Beck, 26% of obstetric nurses met all the diagnostic criteria for screening positive for PTSD due to exposure to their patients who were traumatized (Beck and Gable 2012). Being present at  abusive deliveries can magnify staffs’ exposure to birth trauma.

staff use phrases such as…

“the physician violated her”

“a perfect delivery turned violent”

“unnecessary roughness with her perineum”

“felt like an accomplice to a crime”

“I felt like I was watching a rape.”

….to describe the guilt that ensued when they felt like they had failed women or they did not speak up and challenge/question…

Article 51 establishes that: The following acts implemented by health personnel are considered acts of obstetric violence:

  1. Untimely and ineffective attention of obstetric emergencies
  2. Forcing the woman to give birth in a supine position, with legs raised, when the necessary means to perform a vertical delivery are available
  3. Impeding the early attachment of the child with his/her mother without a medical cause thus preventing the early attachment and blocking the possibility of holding, nursing or breastfeeding immediately after birth
  4. Altering the natural process of low-risk delivery by using acceleration
    techniques, without obtaining voluntary, expressed and informed consent of the woman
  5. Performing delivery via cesarean section, when natural childbirth is possible, without obtaining voluntary, expressed, and informed consent from the woman

(D’Gregorio 2010)

trauma

Yet whilst people do bad things, it is important to remember that they are not necessarily bad people…

This work explains how professionals may exert obstetric violence due to:

  • Lack of technical skills to deal with emotional and sexual aspects of childbirth.
  • Unsolved trauma. The medicalization of childbirth produces more severe iatrogenic
    complications (Johanson, Newburn and Macfarlane 2002; Belghiti et al. 2011). If the
    professionals do not have a supportive space to reflect or to deal with this aspect of iatrogenic care, they may fall into a spiral of continuously increased medicalization as a defensive strategy. Childbirth is then perceived as a very dangerous event, “a bomb ready to explode,” without realizing that interventions cause more unnecessary interventions and pain.
  • Professional burnout in birth attendants will lead to increased dehumanized care and therefore never-ending figures of women experiencing childbirth as very traumatic.

..and so the challenge will be to identify and address these root causes to ensure that maternity staff are able to provide excellence in midwifery care. My work explores how we might support the psychological wellbeing of health care staff may increase levels of humanity and compassion in care. I hope to keep in touch with Ibone Olza and many others around the world who share the same passion for this work. Together we may collectively work towards a time where maternity workers are psychologically safer, and therefore better able to provide the excellence in care they strive to give.

If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaroThe Academic MidwifeThis blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

References and further reading

  • Soet JE, Brack GA, DiIorio C. Prevalence and predictors of women’s experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth 2003 Mar;30(1):36-46.
  • Creedy DK, Shochet IM, Horsfall J. Childbirth and the development of acute trauma symptoms: incidence and contributing factors. Birth 2000 Jun;27(2):104-111.
  • Ayers S, Pickering AD. Do women get post traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth? A prospective study of incidence. Birth 2001 Jun;28(2):111-118.
  • Beck CT, Gable RK, Sakala C, Declercq ER. Post traumatic stress disorder in new mothers: results from a two stage U.S. national survey. Birth 2011 Sep;38(3):216-227.
  • Allen S. A qualitative analysis of the process, mediating variables and impact of traumatic childbirth. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 1998;16(2-3):107-131.
  • Beck CT, Watson S. Impact of birth trauma on breast-feeding: a tale of two pathways. Nurs Res 2008 Jul-Aug;57(4):228-236.
  • Beck CT. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath. Nurs Res 2004 Jul-Aug;53(4):216-224.
  • Beck CT. Birth trauma: in the eye of the beholder. Nurs Res 2004 Jan-Feb;53(1):28-35.
  • Ayers S. Delivery as a traumatic event: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment for postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2004 Sep;47(3):552-567.
  • Olde E, van der Hart O, Kleber R, van Son M. Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: a review. Clin Psychol Rev 2006 Jan;26(1):1-16.
  • Elmir R, Schmied V, Wilkes L, Jackson D. Women’s perceptions and experiences of a traumatic birth: a meta-ethnography. J Adv Nurs 2010 Oct;66(10):2142-2153.
  • Nicholls K, Ayers S. Childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder in couples: a qualitative study. Br J Health Psychol 2007 Nov;12(Pt 4):491-509.
  • Ayers S. Thoughts and emotions during traumatic birth: a qualitative study. Birth 2007 Sep;34(3):253-263.
  • Thomson G, Downe S. Widening the trauma discourse: the link between childbirth and experiences of abuse. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2008 Dec;29(4):268-273.
  • Goldbort JG. Women’s lived experience of their unexpected birthing process. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):57-62.
  • Sawyer A, Ayers S. Post-traumatic growth in women after childbirth. Psychol Health 2009 Apr;24(4):457-471.
  • Hodges S. Abuse in hospital-based birth settings? J Perinat Educ 2009 Fall;18(4):8-11.
  • Kitzinger S. Birth as rape: There must be an end to ‘just in case’ obstetrics. British Journal of Midwifery 2006;14(9):544-545.
  • Beck CT. The anniversary of birth trauma: failure to rescue. Nurs Res 2006 Nov-Dec;55(6):381-390.
  • Beck CT, Gable RK. A Mixed Methods Study of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Labor and Delivery Nurses. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2012 Jul 12.
  • Perez D’Gregorio R. Obstetric violence: a new legal term introduced in Venezuela. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010 Dec;111(3):201-202.
  • Callister LC. Making meaning: women’s birth narratives. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2004 Jul-Aug;33(4):508-518.
  • Johanson R, Newburn M, Macfarlane A. Has the medicalisation of childbirth gone too far? BMJ 2002 Apr 13;324(7342):892-895.
  • Belghiti J, Kayem G, Dupont C, Rudigoz RC, Bouvier-Colle MH, Deneux-Tharaux C. Oxytocin during labour and risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage: a population-based, cohort-nested case-control study. BMJ Open 2011 Dec 21;1(2):e000514.

 

 

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How to conduct research: A dummy’s guide to conducting research

Image result for quote "I do research because"

Seminars held by the worlds top universities generally present the most up to date and respected ideas in relation to conducting research. Recently, I was lucky enough to attend a conference where several seminars were held over a one week period…How very convenient!…These seminars in combination were able to map out a broad blue print of how to conduct research for their audiences (myself and other chums).

As a result of attending these wonderful seminars, I am now able to translate what was shared into this dummy’s guide to conducting research. I write here not only to refresh my own knowledge in this area, but also in the hope that it may be of use to the readers of this post. Wish me luck!…

research

So why do we do research?…Because we have an idea?, a problem to solve?, or an area where a lack of knowledge resides?..(See ) …These are all valid reasons to conduct research within reason, but…What is research?…

Image result for quote on research is formalised curiosity

OK, so we need to define a research question…What question, need or idea are we trying to answer?..What itch do we have to scratch? We need to formulate a research question….and also formulate a research problem.

How to formulate a research problem

  • Explore the nature of the problem. Why is it a problem?..who does it affect?
  • Explore the context of the research problem. Where does it ‘sit’ among other things?
  • Define your variables. What would vary?…what can’t you control?…what would be the impact of that?
  • Think about what would happen if you didn’t address this problem. What would be the consequences of doing something else?
  • Define your objectives? What are you trying to achieve by doing this research?

How to formulate a research question

Think first…is your research question:

  • Interesting
  • Relevant
  • Focused
  • Answerable

Then…narrow your ideas down to develop a great research question.

Broad topic  Narrowed topic      Focused topic   Research Question
Children’s
health →
 Children and diabetes → School meals and sugar content→ Is there an association between sugar content in school meals and diabetes risk?
Walking → Walking related injury → Walking related injury and
adults→
How does Walking related injury affect
adults?
Bullying → Teenagers and
bullying →
Teen peer
pressure and aggressive behavior→
What role, if any, does
peer pressure play in the development of aggressive behavior
among teens?

                                          Image result for hypothesis

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  1. Non directional hypothesis = Pregnant women will experience some change in their pattern of urination.
  2. Directional hypothesis = Pregnant women will urinate less frequently.
  3. Null hypothesis = A statistical assumption. e.g: There will be no difference in the frequency of urination for pregnant women who swim compared with those who do not swim.

And to test this theory…..(quasi-experimental or experimental study design)..we must ascertain the relationship between variables.

Components

Experimental group = Pregnant women swimming

Expected result = e.g Pregnant women will urinate less frequently

Comparison group = Pregnant women who do not swim

Image result for which research design

 

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Quantitative and qualitative research characteristics….

Characteristic Quantitative research Qualitative research
Philosophical origin Logical positivism Naturalistic/Interpretive
Focus

Reasoning

Concise and objective Broad and objective
Reasoning Logistic and deductive Dialectic and inductive
Basis of knowing Cause and effect relationships Meaning, discovery and understanding
Theoretical focus Tests theory Develops theory
Researcher involvement Control Shared interpretations
Methods of measurement Structured interviews, questionnaires, observations, scales or measurements Unstructured interviews and observations
Data Numbers Words
Analysis Statistical analysis Individual interpretations
Findings Generalisation, accept or reject theoretical propositions Uniqueness, understanding of new phenomena and/or theory

Image source and further reading = Crowe, Michael, and Lorraine Sheppard. “Qualitative and quantitative research designs are more similar than different.” Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice 8.4 (2010): 5.

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Quantitative data analysis methods Qualitative data analysis methods
Involve statistics/number analysis Text analysis
Seek deductive interences Seek inductive inferences
Focus on quantifiable phenomena (comparisons, differences, trends and relationships) Focus on meanings (themes)
Involve data clustering analysis for relationships in non-hypothesis testing Involve data structuring and coding into themes and groups.
Involve systematic predetermined analysis Involve in-depth fluid analysis
Value-free enquiry Considers the impact a researcher may have on others’ values
Objective Subjective
Narrow and specific General and broad

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Variable = Anything that varies

Independent variable = does not depend on that of another. Can be introduced or withdrawn by the researcher

Dependent variable = Depends on the independent variables and it’s out come variable e.g: Trauma, bleeding, symptom changes.

Extraneous variable = Unwanted influence that may interfere with either the dependent and/or independent variables.

Demographic variable = Age, gender, race etc.

Top tips:

  • We can ask..’What is the relationship between two or more variables?’ However, we cannot infer ’cause and effect’.
  • Experimental study designed (hypothesis testing) is considered to be the ‘Gold standard’ for evidence. However, you can gather a multitude of this type of evidence via systematic review and/or meta analysis (See more information on these here or in the image below).
  • Ethical considerations should be revisited throughout the study, as well as before commencement.
  • Take control of any extraneous variables by random sampling (from a larger sample base), random assignment (into either a control or experimental group), selecting a homogeneous (similar on an important variable) sample and by matching the control to the experimental group on important variables.

In conducting a systematic review, you can also arrive at new research problems and questions…meaning that the possibilities of conducting research are endless!..

 

But why do all of this hard work if you are not going to share what you have found, analysed, discussed and then concluded?

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It is important to publish and share your work at both a high and low level, so that new knowledge is available to everyone!…Students and professors alike should publish. It is never too soon or early in your career to get started on this. If you are not confident about writing or publishing your work, contact me and I will be happy to partner with you throughout the process.

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If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaroThe Academic MidwifeThis blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

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Making Birth better: How research shapes practice #bbresearch17

Indulging in my passion for research, I am today reflecting on my time at  …an intimate conference made into a delightful day thanks to  & …More specifically …    &   …

I personally enjoyed this as a more intimate conference, where deeper conversations could get the brain working on what was really needed in maternity services and health research…Another reflection of the day can be seen on Steller here…

As you can see, we had a great line up for the day, and a fish and chip lunch no less!

Highlights for me include:

Stop sexualising breastfeeding!!!! The great presentation by

Learning about associated with at with

Learning so much about at with Prof. Soo Downe

Getting a wave from miles away from  across the miles sending & midwifery love to us all …..❤️

Powerful words from at …. how do we cope as midwives, & ensure excellence in maternity care?

And of course.. # learning all about making sure that blood goes to baby with  with ❤️

Learning about the barriers to identifying poor shared by prof at  with 🎓

Yet there were a couple of overarching themes that came from the day…including….

 

Thank you to everyone who came to see these wonderful presentations (including those who came to see my own presentation of course – you gave me lots to think about!)!…and thank you all for such an intimate and heartwarming day discussing my favorite topic…Research in Midwifery 😍…

 

And a last word from the Head of Midwifery at Hinchingbrooke  Hospital….(Heather Gallagher)…..

bbresearch

If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaro; The Academic Midwife; This blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

 

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How to Structure a Research Paper

OK, there are many ways to structure a research paper, and I would urge everyone to follow the guidelines of which ever journal, school or university they are writing for. However, have you ever wondered how to structure a research paper? (A typical one anyway)!…Well I have put together one structure which you may find useful in your writing and planning (I certainly have).

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Introduction:

  • State what this paper going to do, say or explore
  • State why your topic or ‘problem’ is important – why should we care about it?
  • State what we already know about this issue, and what is yet to learn
  • What are you aiming to do with this work? If you are answering a problem, what are your research question(s)?

Background:

  • If the word count allows, give the reader a broader picture of your topic and what you are trying to highlight with the problem you have identified
  • What is the prevalence of your problem? – Give us some stats
  • What could be changed for the better? – Tell us what has already been tried

Methods:

  • Tell us exactly what you have done in order to get the results and findings of this study
  • Tell us where your study took place and in what context
  • State the type of study you chose to use, and why that particular design was appropriate in your case
  • Who did you include in your study? – Tell us about them
  • State how you recruited this sample of participants for your study in detail – How many? where? why?
  • Describe in detail the process you went through to gather your data
  • If you use an intervention, describe it in detail
  • Tell us whether or not there were any variables in this study, is there anything we should know about?
  • How did you collect or ‘extract’ data for this study? – Tell us, and be sure to mention any instruments or tools that were used in this data collection, and why they were chosen
  • State in detail how you analysed the data you collected

Results:

  • How did it all go? Tell us who responded, what your drop out rates where and how many participants took part overall
  • Describe those who did take part – were they men? women? old? young?… where were they from and what conditions did they have?
  • Go back to your research question – Tell us what key findings relate back to answering these questions and how
  • What else did you find out – Tell us the interesting bits, the correlations, the secondary findings which came out of your work

Discussion:

  • Give the reader a quick recap summary of your overall results/findings
  • Discuss what you found in relation to previous research – How do your findings differ from or confirm previous conclusions?
  • Discuss the implications of what you have found – what might change? and who might benefit from knowing?
  • Make sure you do not overstate your findings or exaggerate (I am guilty of this too)! – List the limitations and strengths of your study
  • Offer some thoughts on what research may come next

Conclusions:

If you have covered all of the points above, all you should need to do here is describe what your paper has done, and what is has added to the literature. Leave the reader with some closing thoughts and remarks, before declaring any conflicts of interest and/or funding sources.

Image result for you don't have to be great to start but you have to start to be great

Top academic writing tips:

  • Consider whether your work may be improved by applying a theory to underpin it
  • Think about which other frameworks and/or evidence may underpin your work
  • Consider using a reporting framework or guideline to strengthen the standard of reporting in your work (also….ensure that the framework is suited to the type of research you are doing) – See list here. 
  • How else might you ensure rigor in your research? – Use peer review, risk of bias and quality appraisal tools to check your work
  • Be proud of what you have achieved… always. You are always ahead of those who have yet to begin 💜🎓💜

Further reading:

Huth EJ. How to Write and Publish Papers in the Medical Sciences, 2nd edition. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins,1990.
Browner WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Devers KJ , Frankel RM. Getting qualitative research published. Educ Health 2001; 14: 109–117.
Docherty M, Smith R. The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers. Br Med J 1999; 318: 1224–1225.
Perneger, T V, Hudelson P M; Writing a research article: advice to beginners. Int J Qual Health Care 2004; 16 (3): 191-192. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzh053
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If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaro; The Academic Midwife; This blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤